Expressive language disorder is a communication disorder in which there are difficulties with verbal and written expression. As well as present speech production, very often, someone will have difficulty remembering things. An example of a child with expressive language expressive language disorder can be seen here. Expressive language disorder affects work and schooling in many ways.
It is usually treated by specific speech therapy, and usually cannot be expected to go away on its own. Expressive language disorder can be further classified into two groups: developmental expressive language disorder and acquired expressive language disorder. Developmental expressive language disorder currently has no known cause, is first observed when a child is learning to talk, is more common in boys than girls, and is much more common than the acquired form of the disorder. These factors affect a person’s speech and writing to certain predictable extents, and with certain differences. Careful diagnosis is also important because “atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems”. Willem Levelt outlined the currently accepted theory of speech production. Words are produced after the concept waiting to be produced is conceptualized, related words are selected, encoded and the sound waves of speech are produced.
There is also a lot of debate about whether specific language impairments, such as expressive language disorder, are caused by deficits in grammar or by a deficit in processing language information. However, an alternative hypothesis to the cause of SLIs has been posited, called the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis. Some of the earliest neuroscientific discoveries were related to the discovery that damage to certain areas of the brain related to impairments in language, such as the discovery of Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area. Lesions in these parts of the brain impair language comprehension and language production, respectively. In 1990, it was reported that the several generations of the KE family suffered from developmental verbal dyspraxia and orofacial praxis that were inherited in a typical autosomal dominant pattern. FOXP2 is the first gene that has been identified that is specifically linked to speech and language production. Mutant alleles of the normal FOXP2 gene have been found to be the cause of severe speech impairments.
Neuroimaging techniques, such as structural and functional MRI, found no significant differences between individuals with SLI and normal controls. Due to the vague nature of the diagnosis of expressive language disorder, there is little specific scientific research that we can currently locate. Studies looking at long-term outcomes for individuals with specific language impairments such as expressive language disorder track these individuals from childhood to adulthood. Specific language impairments are often secondary characteristics of other disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The focus and attention on the need for effective literacy instruction in the current educational climate is large. It is widely recognized that literacy needs to be taught across all curricula and verbal fluency correlates positively academic achievement.
Literacy strategies are now being taught in an inclusive manner, rather than the traditional pull-out system, it is assumed that successful teaching strategies for high needs students are good for all students. Students diagnosed with an expressive language disability usually qualify for extra educational supports and assistance in school. If there is no marked improvement in the child’s ability to express themselves verbally once the student enters Grade 1, a child can be given a Code 57 for a Communication Disability. This diagnosis must be given from a Speech-Language Pathologist in order for the child to receive continued special education funding. Speech and language delay in children”. Spoken word production: a theory of lexical access”.
Specific language impairment: a deficit in grammar or processing? Specific language impairment is not specific to language: the procedural deficit hypothesis”. Knecht S, Deppe M, Dräger B, et al. Cerebral lateralization of language in normal left-handed people studied by functional MRI”. An extended family with a dominantly inherited speech disorder”.
Language fMRI abnormalities associated with FOXP2 gene mutation”. Brain morphology in children with specific language impairment”. Guibert C, Maumet C, Jannin P, et al. Webster RI, Erdos C, Evans K, et al. Neurological and magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with developmental language impairment”.
Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism”. Classification of developmental language disorders: theoretical issues and clinical implications. Ten principles of grammar facilitation for children with specific language impairments”. The distinct and overlapping phenotypic spectra of FOXP1 and FOXP2 in cognitive disorders”. Development of orofacial praxis of children from 4 to 8 years of age”. Behavioral correlates of developmental expressive language disorder”.
Pinel P, Fauchereau F, Moreno A, et al. THEM2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in distinct language-related regions”. This page was last edited on 21 March 2018, at 11:04. What type of learning disability is an expressive language disorder, what are the characteristics, and how is it evaluated and treated? What do you need to know about learning disabilities with expressive language?
If your child or loved one has been diagnosed with an expressive language disorder, what does this mean? What may cause these difficulties, how are they evaluated, and how can they be treated? These disorders can be the result of many causes, but often a direct cause is not obvious. They can be related to genetic conditions, damage to the cerebrum of the brain either in utero or later on or malnutrition. Language processing disorders may play a role in both dyslexia and autism. They have difficulty with language processing and the connection between words and ideas they represent. Some people may also have problems with pronunciation of words.
Some students with expressive language disorders may also have difficulty with receptive language. Children with expressive language disorder may appear quiet or answer with only a few words. They often use the filler words such as “um” in response to a question or may simply repeat the question. Vocabulary tends to be reduced based on age and the number of words strung together is often fewer than other children of the same age. Typical strategies focus on language therapy to develop the important concepts necessary to communicate. Vocabulary development, rehearsal, and practice of using language in social situations are often helpful therapeutic methods.